Ernest Gaines - Author - Solano Community College
Renowned author Ernest James Gaines, a graduate of Vallejo Community College now known as
Solano Community College, was born on the River Lake Plantation near the small hamlet of
Oscar, in Pointe Coupee Parish, Louisiana.
Story-telling and oral tradition were a powerful part of African American life in the rural
South, and young Ernest Gaines absorbed the stories of his family and neighbors, acquiring a
sense of history and an ear for the rhythms of vernacular speech. The only school for African
American children in the district was conducted in a single room of the black church.
During World War II, his mother and stepfather, like many African Americans of their
generation, left the South to find work in the booming wartime economy. At 15, Gaines joined
his mother and stepfather in Vallejo. To keep him off the streets and out of trouble, his
stepfather urged him to spend time in the public library.
He soon became enthralled with literature, particularly the 19th century Russian masters,
whose tales of a countryside steeped in feudal tradition echoed his own experience of
plantation life. Finding no literature that directly portrayed the life of African Americans
Gaines played football while he attended and graduated from Vallejo Community College and
after a two-year stint in the U.S. Army, he later enrolled at San Francisco State University,
where he published a number of short stories in the University quarterly. His stories won him
admission to the selective graduate program in creative writing at Stanford University,
conducted by the novelist Wallace Stegner. Gaines settled in San Francisco after graduate
school, working a variety of part-time jobs in the afternoon and reserving his morning hours
His first novel, "Catherine Carmier," was published in 1964. A tragic love story played out
against the complex caste system of rural Louisiana, the work met a favorable critical
reception, but sold poorly. The next years were difficult ones for Gaines, as a succession of
novels and short stories were rejected by publishers. In 1966, he was awarded a grant from the
National Endowment of the Arts to continue his writing. The following year, his second novel,
"Of Love and Dust," appeared. Again, he told a story of life and love thwarted by the legacy
of servitude and discrimination, but this book attracted greater attention than his first.
While many of his contemporaries were depicting the recent experience of African American
migrants to the urban North, Gaines's work was rich in history, the accumulated experience of
centuries. A collection of five stories, "Bloodline," was published in 1968. In his novels and
stories, Gaines created a vidily detailed imaginary community called Bayonne. Although it is
clearly modeled on his own Louisiana parish, his Baynonne is full of invented characters and
incidents, often shocking, but utterly convincing. Deeply grounded in a distinctive place and
culture, his tales resound with universal themes of love and family, of responsibility,
injustice and endurance.
In 1971, Gaines was appointed Writer-in-Residence at Denison University in Granville, Ohio.
That same year, he completed the work that was to make him famous far beyond his own country.
"The Autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman" (1971) is the first-person narrative of a fictional
110-year-old woman, born in slavery, who lives to see the stirrings of the modern Civil Rights
Movement. Her story led readers through a century of African American life. A 1974 television
adaptation of the novel became a national event. The film won nine Emmy Awards and brought
Gaines's work to the attention of a vast audience for the first time.
Not long after the book's publication, Gaines was awarded a Guggenheim Foundation
Fellowship and switfly completed a number of major works. "In My Father's House" (1978) deals
with the estrangement of fathers and sons, a recurring theme in his works. "A Gathering of Old
Men" (1983) tells a complex story through the voices of 15 different narrators -- black,
white, Cajun and Creole - with a single violent act illuminating the history of an entire
community. It too was adapted for television.
In 1993, Gaines received a MacArthur Foundation "genius grant." The same year saw the
publication of his most critically acclaimed novel to date. "A Lesson Before Dying" describes
the belated education of a young man wrongly sentenced to death. The book created an
international sensation; beyond its achievement as a work of literature, it became a
touchstone in the ongoing debate over capital punishment. The work received the National Book
Critics Circle Award for Fiction, and a 1999 television adaptation won the year's Emmy Award
as Best Film for Television.
Since 1983,Gaines has been writer-in-residence at the University of Louisiana,
Lafayette. Gaines gave the college many of his earlier original writings and material, which are housed at the Ernest J. Gaines Center on campus. In addition to his other honors, Gaines has been awarded the National
Humanities Medal of the United States, and is a Chevalier of France's Order of Arts and
Letters. In 2007, the Baton Rouge Foundation established the Ernest J. Gaines Award for
Literary Excellence to recognize new fiction by African American authors.
In addition to his novels and stories, Gaines is a well-regarded essayist and is much in
demand as a public speaker and commentator on American life. A number of his stories and
essays were gathered in the 2005 collection Mozart and Leadbelly. Today, his permanent
residence in Louisiana is a house that he and his wife built on land that was once part of
River Lake Plantation, where he spent his childhood, and where his ancestors labored for
- From the Academy of Achievement
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